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Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Civil War Medicine Timeline: After the War (1866 - 1901)

1866

14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits voting discrimination, denies government office to certain Civil War rebels and repudiates Confederate war debts.

February 11: The United States Christian Commission, which raised and spent more than $6 to support its war relief work, goes out of existence.

March 21: Mrs. Mary Ann “Mother” Bickerdyke submits her resignation to the U.S. Sanitary Commission.

May: Official termination of the United States Sanitary Commission, and the formation of the American Association for the Relief of Misery on the Battlefield.

September 29: George A. Otis, M.D. is breveted Captain and Major for faithful and meritorious service in the Medical Department and Lieutenant Colonel for faithful and meritorious service during the war.

Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.

Ernst Haeckel publishes his General Morphology, describing the law of biogenetics.
Robert Whitehead, an English engineer, invents the underwater torpedo.

1867
Federal Medical Department authorizes the purchase of 4,095 prosthetic legs, 2,391 arms, 61 hands and 14 feet. In the budgets of many former Confederate states, the largest single expenditure was for artificial limbs.

Robert Tanner Freeman graduates from Harvard University and becomes the first African-American to receive a dental degree from an American medical school.

Joseph Lister publishes his Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery based partly on Pasteur’s work. Convinced of the need for cleanliness in surgeries, he developed antiseptic surgical methods that were almost immediately widely adopted. His was a revolutionary idea and one of the most important developments in medicine. If Civil War doctors had known of this concept, they could have used simple vinegar to sterilize instruments and wounds.

Jane Currie Blaikie Hoge publishes The Boys in Blue, the memoir of her experience as a nurse in the Union Army.

Nebraska becomes a state of the U.S.

Russia sells Alaska to the U.S. for $7,200,000.

German professor of medicine Carl Wunderlich introduces thermometry to bedside medicine.

June: The Autenrieth Wagon, adopted by the U.S. Army for the transport of drugs, surgical tools and supplies, is displayed in Paris, France, at the  World’s Fair

1868
Ulysses S. Grant is elected President of the United States.

The Harvard Medical School catalogue first mentions the stethoscope, 30 years after its invention.

Led by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, the New York Medical College for Women at New York Infirmary is started.

A bill proposing to appoint dental surgeons to the Army and Navy fails, but dental surgeons were subsequently appointed to West Point Military College and the Naval Academy.

Howard University School of Medicine in Washington, D.C., established to educate Negro doctors, opens its doors to both Negro and White students, including women. Dr. Alexander Thomas Augusta becomes the first African-American to serve on an American medical school faculty.

The first teaching clinics on diseases of the eye are held in Baltimore. They were conducted by Dr. Russell Murdock, considered the first surgeon to perform unassisted surgical cataract removal. Dr. Murdock was also known for inventing new surgical instruments for eye surgery.

1869
General Ulysses S. Grant is inaugurated as 18th President of the United States.
The first state board of health established in Massachusetts.

The Harvard Medical School catalogue first mentions the microscope, two centuries after its invention.

First transcontinental railway is completed in America.

The body of President Lincoln’s assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was exhumed from a temporary grave under the floor of a warehouse at the Washington Arsenal. Undertaker John H. Weaver staged an informal inquest with Booth’s family and friends. An effort was made to identify the body through its dental work, although the results were inconclusive.

1870
Four medical colleges for women now exist in America.

The germ theory of disease is established by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Before this discovery, doctors believed that diseases were caused by spontaneous generation.
At a meeting of the Aid Society in Berlin, the use of American ambulance trains is described as a model for European armies.


1871
Former U.S. Surgeon General William Hammond publishes Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System, the first textbook on nerve diseases to be published in the U.S.
G.A. Hansen discovers the leprosy bacillus.

The Baltimore Eye and Ear Hospital is founded by Dr. Julian J. Chisolm.

Abraham Lincoln’s youngest son Thomas “Tad” Lincoln dies in Chicago at the age of 18. It is believed that his death was due to progressive respiratory distress caused by fluid around his lungs and possibly his heart.

Population figures in millions:
         Germany 41
         U.S. 39
         France 36
         Japan 33
         Great Britain 26
         Ireland 5.4
         Italy 26.8


1872
Grant is re-elected President of the U.S.

U.S. General Amnesty Act pardons most ex-Confederates.

Billroth makes the first surgical resection of the esophagus.

Brooklyn Bridge opens in New York.

The first nursing school in the United States is established at Bellevue Hospital. It was based on Florence Nightingale’s principles of nursing. Louisa Lee Schuyler, a passionate war volunteer from New York society, was instrumental in starting the school.

Formal nursing training programs are established in 73 American locations.

1873
Linda Richards becomes America’s first trained nurse, graduating from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses.

The Women’s Relief Corps, a national organization for female veterans of the Civil War, is established.

Training programs for nurses are established in New York, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts.

1874
Billroth discovers streptococci and staphylococci.

A.T. Still founds osteopathy in Kansas.

1875
The London School of Medicine for Women is founded.

American artist Thomas Eakins paints The Gross Clinic, portraying famous surgeon Dr. Samuel Gross.

A Marine Hospital is built in San Francisco’s Presidio area.

The first electric dental drill is patented by George Green.

1876
Robert Koch discovers the anthrax bacillus.

Philadelphia hosts an International Congress of Medicine. Reports were given on the state of American medicine. Foreign physicians praised the publications of the Surgeon General’s office and pointed out that France and Prussia had already adopted the “American ambulance” system.

German medical journal Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift publishes a paper suggesting that salsalate could help control blood sugar in diabetics. The accuracy of the studies were confirmed by Harvard researchers in the 1990s.

Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.

Colorado becomes a state of the U.S.

1877
Rutherford B. Hayes inaugurated as 19th President of the U.S.

Robert Koch develops a technique that allows bacteria to be stained and identified.

J. Friedrich A. von Esmarch introduces the antiseptic bandage.

The Presbyterian Charity Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital in Baltimore is founded by Dr. Julian J. Chisolm.

1878
First use of iodoform as an antiseptic.

Researchers noted that “the most frequent cause of the opium-eating habit in females is the taking of opiates to relieve painful menstruation and diseases of female organs of generation.”

Mannlicher produces a repeater rifle.

An Act of Congress on March 15 restores William A. Hammond, as Brigadier General on the retired list, without pay or allowances.

1879
William A. Hammond, M.D. is restored as Brigadier General on the retired list, without pay or allowances, by an Act of Congress in March 1878.

Mary Eliza Mahoney becomes the first black professional nurse in the United States, graduating from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses. (Now Dimock Community Health Center, Boston.)

Pheobe Yates Pember publishes A Southern Woman’s Story: Life in Confederate Richmond, detailing much of her work at Chimborazo Hospital.

Louis Pasteur’s studies of cholera bacteria in chickens paves the way for the development of vaccines against cholera and many other diseases. He creates the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine.

Thomas Edison invents the electric lightbulb.

1880
Thomas Alva Edison and J.W. Swan independently devise the first practical electric lights.

French army surgeon Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran identifies parasites in the blood of a malaria patient.

Typhoid bacillus is discovered.

Pasteur discovers a chicken cholera vaccine.

New York streets are first lit by electricity.

Railroad mileage in operation:
         U.S. 87,800
         Great Britain 17,900
         France 16,400
         Russia 12,200


1881
Relief worker Clara Barton succeeds in her efforts to establish the American Red Cross and begins her service as its first president.

Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch prove the germ theory of disease.

Pasteur and George Miller Sternberg isolate and grow the pneumococcus organism almost simultaneously.

The first vaccine for anthrax is created by Louis Pasteur.

The Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War is founded.

City population in millions:
         London 3.3
         Paris 2.2
         New York 1.2
         Berlin 1.1
         Tokyo 0.8
         St. Petersburg 0.6


1882
The United States ratifies the Geneva Convention and joins the International Red Cross on March 16.

The first organized veterinary group in Pennsylvania, the Keystone Veterinary Medical Association, is formed.

The first vaccine for rabies is created by Louis Pasteur.

Robert Koch identifies the tubercle bacillus (later known as Koch’s bacillus) as the cause of tuberculosis.

Nathan Francis Mossell is the first African-American graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

Viennese physician Joseph Breuer uses hypnosis to treat hysteria.

Thomas Edison designs the first hydroelectric plant in Appleton, Wisconsin.

English engineer Hiram S. Maxim patents the recoil-operated machine gun.



1883
The first skyscraper—10 stories—is built in Chicago.

August 22: A group of twenty-two veterinarians formed the Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Association. Their meeting focused on continuing education and the legislative actions of veterinary associations that had been successful in other states.

Rebecca Lee Crumpler, publishes A Book of Medical Discourses. She was the first African-American woman in the United States to earn an M.D. degree, graduating from the New England Female Medical College.

Florence Nightingale is honored with the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria.

1884
Grover Cleveland is elected U.S. President.

German physician Arthur Nicolaier discovers the tetanus bacillus.

Mary Agnes Snively assumes the post of Lady Superintendent of the Toronto General Hospital’s School of Nursing. She was the first Ontario nurse to be trained in the principles established by Florence Nightingale.

Three Boston opthalmologists propose the creation of the New England Opthalmologist Society. The first meeting took place on December 2, 1884 with 14 members.


Sir Charles Parson invents the first practical steam turbine engine.

1885
Grover Cleveland is inaugurated as 22nd U.S. President.

Louis Pasteur devises a successful rabies vaccine using dessicated brain tissue inactivated with formaldehyde and uses it in humans. It is the first live attenuated viral vaccine. Due to his vaccine, the death rate from rabies dropped to almost zero in three years.

Japan’s first institute for nurse training is established.

The opthalmoscope is improved by the addition of a built-in light source of small electric bulbs.

Sir Francis Galton proves the individuality of fingerprints.

Dr. George E. Holtzapple of Pennsylvania treats a pneumonia patient with pure oxygen. Oxygen therapy became the only effective treatment for pneumonia until antibiotics became available in the 1940s.

The Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War 1861-1865 is founded.

1886
The first American nursing journal, The Nightingale, is published.

Opium demand in the U.S. peaks, during a period from 1880 to 1889, when demand and import increased nine-fold.

Ernst von Bergmann uses steam to sterilize surgical instruments.

The first American nursing program specifically for African-Americans is established at Spelman Seminary in Georgia.

The National Organization of the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic is founded.

1887
Dr. William Williams Keen is the first surgeon in the Americas to successfully remove a benign brain tumor.

One of America’s first bacteriological laboratories is established in the Marine Health Service hospital on Staten Island, New York by Joseph Kinyoun.

The analgesic drug Phenacetin is discovered.

Adolf Frick invents contact lenses.

The National Auxiliary Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War is founded.

1888
An English pediatrician identifies a gastrointestinal disorder, later known as celiac disease.

Dr. Nathan Francis Mossell is the first black physician to be elected as a member of the Philadelphia County Medical Society.

The Pasteur Institute in Paris, an infectious diseases research and training institute, also establishes a rabies treatment center.

The Trained Nurse, a monthly journal, is first published in Buffalo, New York.

1889
North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington become states of the U.S.
Oklahoma is opened to non-Indian settlement.

Benjamin Harrison inaugurated as 23d President of the U.S.

Felix Hoffmann patents aspirin on March 6. It will become the most widely-used medicine in the world.

Frederick Abel invents cordite.

Von Mahring and Minkowski prove that the pancreas secretes insulin to prevent diabetes.

1890
Idaho and Wyoming become states of the U.S.

Rubber gloves are used for the first time in surgery by surgeon William Halsted at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD.

Emil von Behring announces the discovery of antitoxins and uses them to develop vaccines for tetanus and diphtheria.

In search of an herb reputed to cure leprosy, Kate Marsden, founder of the St. Francis Leprosy Guild travels to Yakutia, Siberia.

Global influenza epidemics.

1891
Surgeon Dr. Daniel Hale Williams establishes the Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses in Chicago. It is the first Black-owned and first interracial hospital in the United States.

African-American physician Dr. Nathan Francis Mossell helps to found the Frederick Douglass memorial Hospital and Training School for Nurses in Philadelphia and serves as its chief-of-staff and medical director until his retirement in 1933.

1893
African-American surgeon Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs successful open-heart surgery on a patient in Chicago.

A home class on nursing opens on the Lower East Side of New York. It is taught by Lillian Wald, the founder of the field of visiting nursing.

Mass production of diphtheria antitoxin is begun by city and state public health departments.

The American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses is founded. It will later become the National League for Nursing.

The Nightingale Pledge for nurses, composed by Lystra Gretter, is first used by the graduating class at the Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan.

1894
Yersin and Kitasato independently discover the plague bacillus.

1895
November 8: German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers X-rays and finds that they pass through matter. This property leads immediately to their use in diagnostic medicine.

The National Medical Association is founded in Atlanta, Georgia, as Negro doctors are not permitted to join other established medical groups.

Willem Einthoven identifies five different phases of electrical current in an electrocardiogram.

Marconi invents wireless telegraphy.

1896
Johannes von Mikulisz-Radecki invents the gauze mask to be worn by surgeons when performing surgery.

Michael I. Pupin of Columbia University takes the first diagnostic X-ray photograph in the U.S. to set a broken arm.

Saint Agnes Hospital is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina. It would remain in service for 65 years and was later referred to as the “only well equipped hospital for Negroes between Washington and New Orleans”.

Utah becomes a state of the U.S.

Niagara Falls hydroelectric plant opens.

French physicist A.H. Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

First modern Olympics held in Athens.

1897
William McKinley is inaugurated as 25th President of the U.S.
Ronald Ross discovers the malaria bacillus.

Almroth Edward Wright develops an effective vaccine for typhoid fever.
Aspirin is invented in Germany.

Jane Delano becomes Superintendent of Bellevue Hospital in New York City.
The first vaccine for Bubonic Plague is developed by Alexandre Yersin at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Yersin later went to China to inoculate people during a plague epidemic.

The first meeting of the American Nurses Association is held in February as the “Associated Alumnae of Trained Nurses of the United States and Canada”.

1898
Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium and polonium.

Japanese bacteriologist Shiga discovers the dysentery bacillus.

Bayer chemist Heinrich Dreser prepares diacetylmorphine and names it “heroin”. It was intended as a faster-acting and shorter-lasting pain reliever than morphine, producing less nausea and vomiting.

A British officer in the Indian Medical Service, Ronald Ross, demonstrates that malaria parasites are transmitted via mosquitoes.

1898
The mineral Thorium is found to be radioactive. It had been used by dentists to fill teeth for almost 60 years.

1899
First Peace Conference held at The Hague.

The International Council of Nurses is formed.

The cause of “progressive pernicious anemia”, common in the southern United States, is identified by Dr. Charles Wardell Stiles, a zoologist from Hartford, Connecticut. Dr. Stiles proved that a hookworm species, not a germ, was responsible for the condition.

The Bayer company registers “Aspirin” as a trademark.

The “Midwives Ordinance”, a licensing system for modern nursing professionals, is established in Japan.

The Dames of the Loyal Legion of the United States is founded.

Rutherford discovers alpha and beta rays in radioactive atoms.

Army Nurse Anna E. Turner goes to Cuba with nine other nurses to serve for two years at a yellow fever hospital in Havana. They travel on a cattle boat.
First magnetic recording of sound.

1900
William McKinley, 25th U.S. President, is re-elected.

The Washington Society of Colored Dentists is founded in Washington, D.C. It is the first organization of black dentists.

Dame Agnes Gwendoline Hunt, regarded as the first orthopaedic nurse, opens a convalescent home for crippled children in Baschurch, England, and espouses the theory of open-air treatment. She was disabled from childhood due to osteomyelitis of the hip.

American scientist R.A. Fessenden transmits human speech via radio waves.

1901
Jean Henri Dunant is awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize for his work in creating the International Red Cross and the Geneva Convention. The award is shared with Frederic Passy, who founded the Peace League and worked with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization.

New Zealand becomes the first country to regulate nurses nationally, on September 12, adopting the Nurses Registration Act.

A system to classify blood into A, B, AB, and O groups is introduced by Karl Landsteiner. He receives the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1930 for this discovery.

An all-female Army Nurse corps is made a permanent division.

©2011 JAMCO Films. All Rights Reserved. 


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